Tuesday, August 11, 2020

The meaning of diuretic

The word diuretic has a Greek stem, diu (through) oy r1ih (to urinate), and a diuretic is defined as any substance that increases urine flow and thereby water excretion.

Diuretics are among the most commonly used drugs and the majority act by reducing sodium chloride reabsorption at different sites in the nephron, thereby increasing urinary sodium, and consequently, water loss.

Diuretics are used to relieve oedema associated with heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or hepatic cirrhosis. Some diuretics are used at lower doses to reduce raised blood pressure. Osmotic diuretics are mainly used to treat cerebral oedema, and also to lower raised intraocular pressure.

Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning.

All diuretic agents act primarily by impairing Na+ reabsorption in the renal tubules.

The most common and clinically useful classification of diuretic agents is related to their mechanism and, consequently, their major site of action along the nephron. Based on this, diuretic compounds can be divided into carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotic agents, loop diuretics, thiazides and related sulfonamide compounds and potassium sparing diuretics, including amiloride, triamterene and aldosterone antagonists.
The meaning of diuretic
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