Monday, January 16, 2023

What are phenolic acids?

The term “phenolic acids” generally describes the phenolic compounds having one carboxylic acid group. Phenolic acids, which are also called s phenol carboxylic acids, are the aromatic acids that hold a carboxyl functional group and a phenolic ring. They are one of the main classes of plant phenolic compounds.

Recent interest in phenolic acids stems from their potential protective role, through ingestion of fruits and vegetables, against oxidative damage diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancers).

Phenolic acids are among the most widely distributed plant non-flavonoid phenolic compounds present in the free, conjugated-soluble and insoluble-bound forms.

Dietary phenolic acids, occurs ubiquitously in plants, play a major role protective role in oxidative stress conditions. They are (especially caffeic and ferulic acids) metabolized extensively in human after absorption from GI tract followed by methylation, glucuronidation and sulfation derivatives resulting in the change of their structures and exert biological effects.

Phenolic acids are found in all food groups and they are abundant in cereals, legumes, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, beverages and herbs. The seeds and skins of fruits and the leaves of vegetables contain the highest concentrations. Phenolic acids are also found in the species of mushroom Basidiomycetes. It is a part of the humic substances, which are given as the major organic constituents of soil humus.

Phenolic acids can exert antioxidant activity by scavenging hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical anion, several organic radicals, peroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and singlet oxygen, among others. Phenolic acids possess much higher in vitro antioxidant activity than well-known antioxidant vitamins.

The many different phenolic acids found in nature can be divided into two categories: benzoic acid derivatives, such as gallic acid; and cinnamic acid derivatives, including caffeic acid and ferulic acid. Cinnamic acids are the more common of the two.
What are phenolic acids?

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