Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Brown rice: unpolished whole grain rice

Brown rice is unpolished whole grain rice that is produced by removing only the hull or husk using a mortar and pestle or rubber rolls. It is whole grain rice with intact bran layer and the inedible outer hull removed.

Brown rice consists of the outer layers (pericarp, seed-coat), and the nucleus (bran), the germ or embryo; and the endosperm. The endosperm consists of the aleuronic layer and the endosperm proper (sub aleurone layer and the starchy or inner endosperm). The aleuronic layer encloses the embryo. Pigment is confined to the pericarp which gives the color to brown rice.

The dark color of brown rice is due to the bran layer and is rich in vitamins like thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, and minerals like manganese, phosphorus, and iron.

It has a mild nutty flavor, is chewier than white rice and becomes rancid more quickly, but is far more nutritious.

Brown rice is produced by de-husking the hull. The first step of the milling process removes the husk from the whole rice grain or paddy to obtain the whole brown rice grain that contains the outer bran layer with commonly brown color. The second step removes the outer bran layer to obtain the polished or white rice.

Brown rice is a highly nutritious food. It is a whole grain that is relatively low in calories (216 calories per cup), high in fiber, gluten-free and can be incorporated into a variety of dishes. The USA Rice Federation notes that brown rice contains no trans-fat or cholesterol. It has only trace amounts of fat and sodium.

The whole brown rice grain and its derived extracts were found to contain several bioactive compounds, which are commonly linked to its potential health benefits. Phenolic compounds are the major bioactive found in the whole brown rice grain. Also, brown rice is a good source of γ -oryzanol, an ester of ferulic acid and varying phytosterols, and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid).

It is known that brown rice has the lower GI index than white rice. Therefore, brown rice is more suitable for patients susceptible for type II diabetes.
Brown rice: unpolished whole grain rice

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